Non-monetary benefit sharing (NMBS) is widely recognised (e.g. in the Nagoya Protocol on ABS) as potentially contributing to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, as well as poverty alleviation and economic development. Non-monetary benefits are often available at low marginal cost to users of genetic resources while being of high marginal value to providers. NMBS has never been studied in detail. The proposed Fellowship will develop a detailed typology of NMBS to increasing shared understanding of its potential and supplement this with model contractual clauses for including NMBS in mutually agreed terms contracts, thereby enabling increased use of this cost-effective tool.