The main Darwin project will contribute to the conservation of at least three highly threatened useful plants in Kenya. It will combine training for 2-4 Kenyan graduate scientists (among students or botanic garden staff), research on target species required to define best management practices to save them from extirpation and socio-economic benefit and awareness for local people. Examples of target species (to be chosen during the visit) are: Vitex keniensis, Ocotea usambarensis, Premna maxima, Olea capensis ssp. macrocarpa, Entandophragma angolense etc. all timber or medicinal or food plants used by locals and threatened by overexploitation. Training will consist of single courses or PhDs or post-doc positions (depending on the eligible duration of the main Darwin project), in Biodiversity and Ecosystem Analysis, which will provide theoretical and technical knowledge to address issues in plant management and conservation. Research will focus on plant population management (e.g. viability analysis, propagation, seed germination, more efficient extraction of active principles, etc). Expected Outcome of the main Darwin project will be: 1) highly-trained local people who will drive plant conservation and ecological restoration in Kenya; 2) immediate reduction in overexploitation of the target species; 3) inclusive and sustainable use of plant resources in local communities. The project would contribute to SDG 4, 5, 11, 15, 17, CBD (improved conservation status of target species; ex situ stock), CITES (alternative sources other than in situ collection for the use of target species), and ITPGR depending on the selected target species. The project will comply with the Nagoya Protocol. The project will contribute to sustainable development in Kenya by improving the access of locals to limited resources represented by the target species with practical actions such as creation of community nurseries/seed banks, replanting (restoration) activities, creation of community facilities for product transformation and enlargement of the potential product market through ad hoc dissemination activities in Italy and the EU.